Overview[ edit ] Episode Two introduced new rural environments to the Half-Life series. The Orange Box features five complete games compiled into one retail unit: All of these games use Valve's Source engine.
First, we see the receiver address, which is the MAC address of the device where this frame will be received next. The destination address is the MAC address of the wireless station to which this frame should eventually be delivered: It should be the next frame in the capture: ACK frames have only three fields: Frame Control bits are set to to indicate an ACK frame.
Duration field is set to 0 if acknowledging a complete data frame or the final fragment in a fragment burst. Receiver address field is set to the Address 2 field transmitter address of the frame that is being acknowledged.
Retransmission from AP Portal frame lab destination Next, in our capture, we can observe that the same data payload is transmitted from the AP to the destination STA: Here, we see some changes in the headers: The DS bits have changed, to indicate that this frame is sent from the AP to the distribution system.
The duration is different. The addresses are different. We are now following the scheme in the second row in the table in the Addresses section, and the receiver and transmitter addresses are different now because the frame is going from the AP to the destination STA, rather than from the source STA to the AP.
The sequence number is different. This number indicates where a frame belongs in the sequence of frames sent from a transmitter address, to a receiver address. But, the data payload of the frame, including all the higher-layer headers and the text of the message, are the same: Notes Exercise Annotate the packets you captured following the tutorial above, as I have done in the Results section.
Show four annotated packets: The first frame carrying the message you typed into netcat its Then, modify the experiment so that the network operates in ad-hoc mode, rather than in infrastructure mode, as follows: First, reconfigure each of the two wireless station nodes so that they are in ad-hoc mode: Then, configure an IP address on each with ifconfig as before, and verify connectivity with ping.
On the monitoring node, run airodump-ng -c 11 --bssid FA: On the monitoring node, use ls to verify that there is a new capture file. The capture file should still have the prefix "wlan-capture", but the number is incremented, e. Transfer this capture file to your computer, and observe it in Wireshark.
Which header fields are different, compared to the previous experiment? What else is different about operation in ad-hoc mode vs.
Using other wireless testbeds You may also run this experiment on the "outdoor" testbed at ORBITusing any group of four nodes that are available, close to one another, and have Atheros 9XXX cards.
You can verify the availability of "outdoor" nodes and their capabilities as follows: This will mark with an X any node that has a WiFi interface in the Atheros 9xxx family.
In the display, nodes that are available are shown as blue or green squares; nodes that are not available are shown as red squares. You can find out the name of a node by clicking on it, and then looking at the "Info" panel on the left.
Use this information to make substitutions in the instructions, replacing unavailable nodes if any; shown as red squares with nearby available nodes that have Atheros 9xxx cards.
If using "sb4", when you first log in to the "sb4" console you should run wget -qO- "http: The "grid" testbed is generally in high demand, however, and is difficult to get time on.
If using another testbed, you will have to make some minor changes to these instructions. You'll need to SSH in to the console of the testbed you have reserved, e.
For example, on sb4: Your scp command will have to change to reflect the testbed you are running on and the node on which you are monitoring traffic.
To create the wifi-experiment. Then I installed some software from the Ubuntu package repositories: Alternatively, you can manually load the module on each boot with modprobe ath9k.Structure Analysis Lab Equipments.
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Have a Question? Ask or enter a search term here. Browse by Topic. Accounts 4 Articles View All How do I create a Bay Photo Account? Recall that for this frame, the To DS bit was 1 and the From DS bit was 0, corresponding to the first row in this table.
First, we see the receiver address, which is the MAC address of the device where this frame will be received next.