Official definitions[ edit ] Old age comprises "the later part of life; the period of life after youth and middle age. At the same time, the WHO recognized that the developing world often defines old age, not by years, but by new roles, loss of previous roles, or inability to make active contributions to society. Being 60—65 years old is usually a requirement for becoming eligible for senior social programs. In developed countries, most people in their 60s and early 70s are still fit, active, and able to care for themselves.
The elderly often have decreased intestinal motility and decreased gastric acid secretion that can lead to nutritional deficiencies. The problem can be accentuated by poorly fitting dentures, poor appetite, and a decreased sense of taste and smell. Although lower levels of activity reduce the… Social programs State institutions to aid the elderly have existed in varying degrees since the time of the ancient Roman Empire.
An amendment to this law in instituted workhouses for the poor and aged, and in England introduced social insurance for the aged regulated by Essay on old age people evaluations. In the s Otto von Bismarck in Germany introduced old-age pensions whose model was followed by most other western European countries.
Today more than nations have some form of social security program for the aged. The United States was one of the last countries to institute such programs. Not until the Social Security Act of was formulated to relieve hardships caused by the Great Depression were the elderly granted old-age pensions.
For the most part, these state programs, while alleviating some burdens of aging, still do not bring older people to a level of income comparable to that of younger people.
Physiological effects The physiological effects of aging differ widely among individuals. However, chronic ailments, especially aches and pains, are more prevalent than acute ailments, requiring older people to spend more time and money on medical problems than younger people.
The rising cost of medical care has caused a growing concern among older people and societies, in general resulting in constant reevaluation and reform of institutions and programs designed to aid the elderly with these expenses.
In ancient Rome and medieval Europe the average life span is estimated to have been between 20 and 30 years. Life expectancy today has expanded in historically unprecedented proportions, greatly increasing the numbers of people who survive over the age of Therefore, the instances of medical problems associated with aging, such as certain kinds of cancer and heart diseasehave increased, giving rise to greater consideration, both in research and in social programs, for accommodating this increase.
Certain aspects of sensory and perceptual skills, muscular strength, and certain kinds of memory tend to diminish with age, rendering older people unsuitable for some activities.
There is, however, no conclusive evidence that intelligence deteriorates with age, but rather that it is more closely associated with education and standard of living. Sexual activity tends to decrease with age, but if an individual is healthy there is no age limit for its continuance.
Many of the myths surrounding the process of aging are being invalidated by increased studies in gerontology, but there still is not sufficient information to provide adequate conclusions. In agrarian societies the elderly have a status of respectability. Their life experiences and knowledge are regarded as valuable, especially in preliterate societies where knowledge is orally transmitted.
The range of activities in these societies allows the elderly to continue to be productive members of their communities. In industrialized nations the status of the elderly has altered as the socioeconomic conditions have changed, tending to reduce the status of the elderly as a society becomes more technologically oriented.
Since physical disability is less a factor in productive capability in industrialized countries, this reduction in social status is thought to have been generated by several interrelated factors:The Economist offers authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
This free Sociology essay on Essay: Attitudes and choices in old age is perfect for Sociology students to use as an example. This free Sociology essay on Essay: Attitudes and choices in old age is perfect for Sociology students to use as an example.
This may not be reality for many people at younger age. At old age it is fact that only. Old age is perplexing to imagine in part because the definition of it is notoriously unstable. As people age, they tend to move the goalposts that mark out major life stages.
Mar 10, · The immediate location of the book is Cambridge, Mass., home of Harvard University, now a leading liberal educational institution but once a Puritan theological seminary.
September Remember the essays you had to write in high school? Topic sentence, introductory paragraph, supporting paragraphs, conclusion. The conclusion being, say, that Ahab in Moby Dick was a Christ-like figure.
Oy. TOEFL Writing Topics. 1. People attend school for many different reasons (for example, expanded knowledge, societal awareness, and enhanced interpersonal relationships).