While the focus of this chapter is on perinatal loss, other reproductive losses including miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and pregnancy termination for fetal anomaly are briefly considered and contrasted.
Universal ethical principles Principled conscience The understanding gained in each stage is retained in later stages, but may be regarded by those in later stages as simplistic, lacking in sufficient attention to detail.
Pre-conventional[ edit ] The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning.
Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. The pre-conventional level consists of the first and second stages of moral development and is solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner.
For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished. The child would apply obedience and punishment driven morality by refusing to skip school because he would get punished.
An example of self-interest driven is when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore. The child is motivated by self-interest to do chores. Conventional[ edit ] The Erikson s stages interview level of moral reasoning is typical of adolescents and adults.
The conventional level consists of the third and fourth stages of moral development.
They try to be a "good boy" or "good girl" to live up to these expectations,  having learned that being regarded as good benefits the self. The intentions of actors play a more significant role in reasoning at this stage; one may feel more forgiving if one thinks that "they mean well".
Moral reasoning in stage four is thus beyond the need for individual approval exhibited in stage three. A central ideal or ideals often prescribe what is right and wrong. If one person violates a law, perhaps everyone would—thus there is an obligation and a duty to uphold laws and rules.
When someone does violate a law, it is morally wrong; culpability is thus a significant factor in this stage as it separates the bad domains from the good ones. Most active members of society remain at stage four, where morality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force.
Post-conventional moralists live by their own ethical principles—principles that typically include such basic human rights as life, liberty, and justice. People who exhibit post-conventional morality view rules as useful but changeable mechanisms—ideally rules can maintain the general social order and protect human rights.
Rules are not absolute dictates that must be obeyed without question. Because post-conventional individuals elevate their own moral evaluation of a situation over social conventions, their behavior, especially at stage six, can be confused with that of those at the pre-conventional level.
Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community. Laws are regarded as social contracts rather than rigid edicts.
Those that do not promote the general welfare should be changed when necessary to meet "the greatest good for the greatest number of people". Democratic government is ostensibly based on stage five reasoning.
In Stage six universal ethical principles drivenmoral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles. Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws.
Legal rights are unnecessary, as social contracts are not essential for deontic moral action. Decisions are not reached hypothetically in a conditional way but rather categorically in an absolute way, as in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
In this way action is never a means but always an end in itself; the individual acts because it is right, and not because it avoids punishment, is in their best interest, expected, legal, or previously agreed upon. Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that level.
Further stages[ edit ] In his empirical studies of individuals throughout their life, Kohlberg observed that some had apparently undergone moral stage regression.
This could be resolved either by allowing for moral regression or by extending the theory. Kohlberg chose the latter, postulating the existence of sub-stages in which the emerging stage has not yet been fully integrated into the personality.Home.
Career Test for the Soul, Step 2. Tracking Your Life Stage Progression. Many contemporary social scientists, notably Erik Erikson and Daniel Levinson, have conducted research and identified specific developmental stages through which most people pass in their life's journey.
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Like Piaget, Erik Erikson () maintained that children develop in a predetermined order. Instead of focusing on cognitive development, however, he was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self.
Erikson’s stages of development are elastic from a chronological standpoint. There is considerable overlap of behaviors within the different age categories.
2. Erikson’s terms for the various psychosocial crises associated with each stage of development seem arbitrary. Erikson's Eight Stages asked her a series of questions that would relate Eriksons stages to her life.
At the conclusion of the interview, I asked my grandmother to give a summation of her.
The Human Odyssey: Navigating the Twelve Stages of Life [Thomas Armstrong PhD] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Many excellent volumes have been devoted to some of the key chapters in our lives, from classics on early childhood and the teen years to bestsellers that identify pivotal phases in adulthood.
But . Abstract. A new measure of Erikson’s final psychosocial stage, Integrity versus Despair, is presented and validated across two studies. In the first, 97 adults (68 women and 31 men) aged 65 and older responded to this measure: the Self-Examination Interview (SEI).