The Sun Never Set on the British Empire, "Dominion over palm and pine" Some chronicler, speaking of Asia, asserted that one man ruled as much land as the sun passed, and his statement was not true because he placed all Africa and Europe outside the limits where the sun rises in the East and sets in the West. It has now however turned out to be true. Your possession is equal to what the sun can pass, and the sun passes over your land. Oliver, The American Philosophical Society,p.
Effects on the economy[ edit ] In the latter half of the 19th century, both the direct administration of India by the British crown and the technological change ushered in by the industrial revolutionhad the effect of closely intertwining the economies of India and Great Britain.
Since Dalhousie had embraced the technological change then rampant in Great Britain, India too saw rapid development of all those technologies. Bywith a history of 60 years of its construction, only ten per cent of the "superior posts" in the railways were held by Indians.
Although famines were not new to the subcontinent, these were particularly severe, with tens of millions dying,  and with many critics, both British and Indian, laying the blame at the doorsteps of the lumbering colonial administrations.
The canal was closed to navigation in to increase irrigation and aid in famine-prevention. Railway map of India in Railway construction in India had begun in The station was completed in Beginnings of self-government[ edit ] The first steps were taken toward self-government in British India in the late 19th century with the appointment of Indian counsellors to advise the British viceroy and the establishment of provincial councils with Indian members; the British subsequently widened participation in legislative councils with the Indian Councils Act Municipal Corporations and District Boards were created for local administration; they included elected Indian members.
The Indian Councils Act — also known as the Morley-Minto Reforms John Morley was the secretary of state for India, and Gilbert Elliotfourth earl of Minto, was viceroy — gave Indians limited roles in the central and provincial legislatures, known as legislative councils.
Indians had previously been appointed to legislative councils, but after the reforms some were elected to them. At the centre, the majority of council members continued to be government-appointed officials, and the viceroy was in no way responsible to the legislature.
At the provincial level, the elected members, together with unofficial appointees, outnumbered the appointed officials, but responsibility of the governor to the legislature was not contemplated.
Morley made it clear in introducing the legislation to the British Parliament that parliamentary self-government was not the goal of the British government. The Morley-Minto Reforms were a milestone. Step by step, the elective principle was introduced for membership in Indian legislative councils.
The "electorate" was limited, however, to a small group of upper-class Indians. These elected members increasingly became an "opposition" to the "official government".
The Communal electorates were later extended to other communities and made a political factor of the Indian tendency toward group identification through religion.
Earlier, at the onset of World War I, the reassignment of most of the British army in India to Europe and Mesopotamia had led the previous Viceroy, Lord Hardingto worry about the "risks involved in denuding India of troops.
Consequently, ineven as Edwin Montagu announced the new constitutional reforms, a sedition committee chaired by a British judge, Mr. Bengalthe Bombay presidencyand the Punjab.British rule of India; Background; this case study considers the nature of British rule in India and uses documents from the National Archives British rule from the time after the mutiny is often called the Raj.
During this period a tiny number of British officials and troops (about 20, in all) ruled over million Indians. This was. British Raj (rāj, lit.
"rule" in Hindi) or British India, officially the British Indian Empire, and internationally and contemporaneously, India, is the term used synonymously for the region, the rule, and the period, from to , of the British Empire on the Indian subcontinent.
The British East India Company arrived in India in the early s, struggling and nearly begging for the right to trade and do business.
Within years the thriving firm of British merchants, backed by its own powerful private army, was essentially ruling India. In the s English power. The Colonel's Notebook: A collection of "would be" magazine articles, anecdotes, and memoirs, by a member of the Victorian and Edwardian British Raj in India Apr 21, by Henry Butterfield.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj ", lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian initiativeblog.com is variously taken to have commenced in , after the Battle of Plassey, when Mir Jafar, the new Nawab of Bengal enthroned by Robert Clive, became a puppet in the Company's hands; in , when the Company was.
The British Raj relied on Indians to carry out the heavy lifting of imperial occupation and governance. As late as , there were only , British citizens living in .