To keep the crew and the computers alive you have to shield them from both gamma rays and pions.
This is based on my experiences hacking into my Toyota… Toyothack! The bus runs up to 1Mbps, and the speed directly influences the max bus length.
The unusual thing is that we think of frame address, not source or destination address, in fact CAN bus nodes does not have an address at all! Image from Analog Devices AN Application Note datasheet The idea behind this is that address are used to identify the type of frame i.
What this means that while the bus is physically a broadcast all the nodes are connected to the same cablethe protocol makes it work logically as multicast. This makes the bus very well suitable in automotive and automation environment, where some sensor may put data on the bus that is used by many processors or actuators, and allows to mix nodes with different computing power on the same bus.
At the same time, nothing prohibit the designer to assign some frame addresses for a logically point-to-point communication between two specific nodes, and implement a stream protocol no top of it: One additional feature is that the bus is designed so that lower frame addresses have an higher priority when contending for the bus.
A modern car have many different ECUs and sensors, and the multicast nature of CAN bus makes it ideal to distribute the data as needed. Of course, some data and some nodes are more important than the others, and while CAN bus controller implements some safety features such as error counters to self-disconnect from the bus in case of errors, the bus itself can still suffer from a catastrophic failure, such as a cable short or a cut in the middle.
For this reason, complex cars usually have more than one bus, often running at different speed. All vehicle busses are usually connected to a common ECU at some point, which may be used as a proxy to selectively transport some information between busses, while keeping the physical isolation for safety reasons.
How the bus is laid out is specific to each car, so you may want to search for the service manual of a specific model, where you can usually found information on the physical bus topology.
The idea behind OBD is that as modern vehicles rely heavily on electronics and have a many self test capability, a common protocol should allow a service center to read some standard error code to help troubleshooting. At this point, a service center should be able to connect a generic scanner to the vehicle standard OBD port, and that should give a indication of what have failed in the vehicle history.
The OBD was originally implemented through some simple vendor-specific protocol, at the point that when the standard OBD-II connector was defined many different busses, including CAN bus, were supported on the same cable, and a generic scanner needed to support all of those and guess which one is used on a specific vehicle see ELM This means that in most possibly all modern cars, you can find a standard diagnostic connector accessible somewhere near the dashboard, and on this connector you are sure to get access to one of the vehicle CAN bus.
So, what can you expect to find once you tap into that bus with your CAN bus interface? So, to sum up: Either way, this is a quick list:Jun 01, · This is my instructable for turning a segmented wooden bowl.
I made this one with salvaged wood from old projects and furniture. It uses cherry and maple for the contrast, but you can use almost any hardwoods. Open any book on segmented turning and you’re likely to see at least one chapter filled with numbers, angles, and formulas.
But you don’t have to be a mathematician to calculate the angles, lengths, widths and depths of the building blocks that make up a segmented glue-up. The crown-of-thorns (Acanthaster planci) is one of the largest and the most venomous initiativeblog.com can reach 50 cm diameter and has numerous (10 to 20) spiny arms with formidable thorn like toxic spines.
A project can be segmented into which of the following? Events Sub-jobs [Work packages] Success markers Which of the following is a cost impact and payoff analysis tool from the operations consulting tool kit? Statistical tools . 4. A project can be segmented into which of the following?
A. Sub-jobs B.
Success markers C. Work packages D. Events 5. ISO audits result in certifications that are done by first, second, or third parties. Designing a Project Translating the Design into Cutting Instructions Cutting Segments Gluing and Clamping Rings Below are two examples of patterns of the sort you can use to adorn your segmented project.
You have to do more work but the result can be worthwhile. Both of these required computing the sizes of the different sized segments .