Here is a great description of what they are and how they fit in to the religious system of the indians written by Harold Colton in
H by Ellen French and Richard C. The Hopi reservation, almost 2. The Hopis inhabit 14 villages, most of which are situated atop three rocky mesas called First Mesa, Second Mesa, and Third Mesa that rise feet from the desert floor. Estimated at 2, inthe Hopi Nation had 7, members inabout 1, of whom lived off the reservation.
The Hopies are ancient, having lived continuously in the same place for a thousand years. They are also a deeply religious people, whose customs and yearlong calendar of ritual ceremonialism guide virtually every aspect of their lives.
Although some concessions to modern convenience have been made, the Hopis have zealously guarded their cultural traditions.
This degree of cultural preservation is a remarkable achievement, facilitated by isolation, secrecy, and a community that remains essentially closed to outsiders. Their village of Oraibi is indisputably the oldest continuously occupied settlement in the United States.
In her book The Wind Won't Know Me, Emily Benedek wrote that "anthropologists have shown that the cultural remains present a clear, uninterrupted, logical development culminating in the life, general technology, architecture, and agriculture and ceremonial practices to be seen on the three Hopi mesas today.
The period from to is considered the Hopi ancestral period, marked primarily by the rise of village chieftains. A need for greater social organization arose from increased village size and the first ritual use of kivas, the underground ceremonial chambers found in every village.
Additionally, coal was mined from mesa outcroppings, requiring unprecedented coordination.
The Hopis were among the world's first people to use coal for firing pottery. The complex Hopi culture, much as it exists today, was firmly in place by the s, including the ceremonial cycle, the clan and chieftain social system, and agricultural methods that utilized every possible source of moisture in an extremely arid environment.
The Hopis' "historical period" began inwhen first contact with Europeans occurred. After a brief, confrontational search produced no gold, the Spanish destroyed part of a village and left.
The Hopis were not molested further untilwhen the first Spanish missionaries arrived, building missions in the villages of Awatovi, Oraibi, and Shungopavi. Historians speculate the Hopis pretended to adopt the new religion while practicing their own in secret.
Hopi oral history confirms this interpretation. Rebelling finally against the Spanish yoke of religious oppression, the Hopis joined the rest of the Pueblo people in a unified revolt in During this uprising, known as the Pueblo Revolt, the Indians took the lives of Franciscan priests and Spanish soldiers and then besieged Santa Fe for several days.
When the Hopis finally returned to their villages, they killed all the missionaries. The Hopis then moved three of their villages to the mesa tops as a defensive measure against possible retaliation.
The Spanish returned to reconquer the Rio Grande area in Over the next few years, many living in Awatovi invited the Spanish priests back, a situation that caused a serious rift between those who wanted to preserve the old ways and those who embraced Christianity.
Finally, in Hopi traditionalists killed all the Christian men in Awatovi and then destroyed the village.The majority of Hopi people are enrolled in the Hopi Tribe of Arizona but some are enrolled in the Colorado River Indian Tribes.
The Hopi Reservation covers a land area of 2, sq mi (6, km 2). the Kachina Cult, people in general can therefore show the Hopi the respect they deserve by knowing how to behave in ceremonial situations they may become involved in.
Ceremonies are very important to the Kachina Cult and are very sacred and secretive. Ever since J. Walter Fewkes, of the Smithsonian Institution, wrote his first illustrated report on Hopi kachinas, in , a growing number of people have become interested in the Hopi Indians and their delightful carved and painted kachina dolls.
Hopi History Hopi North American Indian tribe of the Pueblo group, of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Also called Moqui, they live in a small group of autonomous villages, lying on three high mesas on north-central Arizona. Hopi History Hopi North American Indian tribe of the Pueblo group, of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Also called Moqui, they live in a small group of autonomous villages, lying on three high mesas on north-central Arizona.
Hopi (hō´pē), group of the Pueblo, formerly called Moki, or Moqui. The Hopi are a Pueblo people, most likely descending from the Hisatsinom (Hopi for "people of long ago") who lived among the cliffs of what is now the Southwest desert as much as 2, years ago.
Hopi kachina dolls, hand-woven baskets, and ornate jewelry. Oral literature.